Arsenic Toxicity

Posted on Dec 3, 2008 in Health & Wellness

Author: Krisha McCoy, MS
Definition
Arsenic toxicity occurs when a person is exposed to arsenic. Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in the earth’s crust. It has no smell or taste. If you suspect you have been exposed to arsenic, contact your doctor immediately.

There are two primary forms of arsenic:

Inorganic arsenic-arsenic combined with oxygen, chlorine, or sulfur; found in the environment
Organic arsenic-arsenic combined with carbon and hydrogen; found in animals and plants

Inorganic arsenic is usually more harmful than organic arsenic.

Causes
Arsenic occurs naturally in soil and minerals, and may enter the air, water, and soil. It is also used:

To preserve or pressure-treat wood (this use is being phased out except for specific applications such as railroad ties and utility poles, but old stocks may still be around and pose a risk)
As a pesticide
To produce glass
In copper and other metal manufacturing
In the electronics industry
In medicine

Arsenic toxicity may occur when a person is exposed to toxic amounts of arsenic due to:

Breathing air containing arsenic
Eating food contaminated with arsenic
Drinking water contaminated with arsenic
Living in areas with high natural levels of arsenic
Working in a job that involves arsenic


Anyone can develop arsenic toxicity as a result of arsenic exposure. But certain people are more likely to be exposed to arsenic. The following factors increase your chances of being exposed to arsenic. If you have any of these risk factors, tell your doctor:

Working in:
Companies that preserve wood with arsenic
Metal manufacturing industry
Glass production industry
Electronic industry
Other industries that use arsenic
Living in an area with high natural levels of arsenic

In addition, children may be more susceptible than adults to the health effects of arsenic. There is some evidence that arsenic exposure may harm pregnant women and their unborn babies.

Symptoms
Ingesting very high levels of arsenic can result in death. Arsenic has also been linked to increased risks of caner of the lung, skin, bladder, liver, kidney, and prostate.

Symptoms of arsenic exposure include:

Thickening of skin
Discoloration of skin
Small “corns” or “warts” on the palms, soles, and torso
Stomach pain
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Decreased production of red and white blood cells
Abnormal heart rhythm
Damage to blood vessels
Numbness in hands and feet
Partial paralysis
Blindness
Garlic odor of breath
Seizures

Diagnosis
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. It can be difficult to make a diagnosis of arsenic poisoning because symptoms are so varied. If you have concerns about arsenic causing symptoms in yourself or a family member be sure to tell these to your doctor. Tests on blood and urine can quickly establish or “rule out” this diagnosis.

Tests may include the following:

Blood tests
Urine tests
Hair or fingernail analysis

Treatment
There is no effective treatment for arsenic toxicity. There is increasing evidence that treatment with the chelating drug 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS) may benefit some arsenic poisoned persons. An alternative is succimer. Chelation therapy involves putting a chemical, or chelating agent, into the bloodstream. The chelating agent combines with a toxin to help remove it from the body. Chelating agents may be given by pill or by injection.

If chelation is not indicated or is ineffective, your treatment will be designed to help manage and relieve your symptoms.

Prevention
To help reduce your chances of getting arsenic toxicity, take the following steps:

If you work with arsenic-treated wood at home, wear a dust mask, gloves, and protective clothing. Do not burn any wood that has been treated with arsenic compounds.
If you live in an area with high natural levels of arsenic, use cleaner sources of water (eg, bottled or filtered water) and limit contact with soil. If you have well water, have it tested for a variety of contaminants including arsenic.